Porsche 919 Hybrid

Porsche 919 Hybrid

The Porsche 919 Hybrid is a Sport-Prototype racing car , belonging to the Le Mans Prototype category . It is being developed by Porsche to compete in the LMP1-H category of the FIA World Endurance Championship starting in the 2014 season . Committed by the Porsche Team factory team , it has notably enabled the brand to win the 2015 , 2016 and 2017 Le Mans 24 Hours as well as the championship titles and constructors of the championship in 2015 , 2016 and 2017 .

Despite having undergone modifications during its three seasons of participation in the World Endurance Championship, the technical solution remains essentially the same and is based on the combination of a turbocharged petrol V4 engine placed on the rear end, and an electric motor-generator on the front axle. Two energy recovery systems make it possible to recharge the batteries: one thanks to the exhaust gases and the other thanks to the kinetic energy of the braking .

The 919 Hybrid is mainly competing with the Audi R18 e-tron quattro , and the Toyota TS040 Hybrid (the Toyota TS050 Hybrid from 2016).



History

Porsche decided in May 2011 to participate in the FIA World Endurance Championship , created in 2012, and to return after many years of absence at the 24 Hours of Le Mans with a factory team in LMP1 1 . The builder then takes advantage of the new 2014 energy efficiency 2 bylaw and gives the builders a lot of latitude in terms of the architecture to adopt. At the helm of the overall management of the LM P1 project is Fritz Enzinger who joins Porsche from late 2011, while that Alex Hitzinger (in) is the head of the engineering part and that Andreas Seidl (de) leads the team race 1. The team had to be made from scratch, with the aim of quickly announced winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans for the 17 th time 1 . Alex Hitzinger, who previously worked in Formula 1 as an engineer at Red Bull Racing and Scuderia Toro Rosso , is responsible for the development of the car 1 .

The technical choices made by the team are very different from its competitors. While in 2014 Audi uses a V6 diesel turbo 4 L on the R18 e-tron quattro and Toyota atmospheric petrol V8 3.7 L on the TS040 Hybrid , Porsche turns to a V4 turbo petrol only 2 L 2 . Porsche team technical director Alex Hitzinger justifies this choice by explaining that “compared to a 6-cylinder, a 4-cylinder offers better fuel efficiency” , and that it is “easier to cool, lighter and more compact so easily implantable » 2. In addition, this V4 engine derives from the V8 used successfully in the LMP2 category on the RS Spyder . It is associated with two energy recovery systems: a kinetic ERS-K on the front axle recovering energy during braking, and a thermal ERS-H operating with a turbine located in the exhaust line 2 . Thus equipped, the 919 Hybrid fits for its first year in class 6 MJ , like the Toyota and against 2 MJ only for the Audi.
The first run made by the prototype, which then has no name, is realized on June 12 , 2013on the Porsche 3 test circuit . Timo Bernhard at the wheel, and the car is in a “camouflage” delivered 3 .

The name “919 Hybrid”, which refers to both the famous 917 and the 918 Spyder 4 , is officially unveiled during the Night of Champions, the December 14 , 2013in Weissach 4 . The names of the six drivers running during the 2014 season, selected by project manager Fritz Enzinger, are also unveiled on this occasion 4 . It’s then 5 March of the following year, during the International Motor Show of Geneva in 2014 , the colors of the car and the final composition of the crew are on public 3 . These Dumas, Lieb and Jani on n o 14, and Bernhard, Hartley and Webber on n o 20 3 . The new 911 RSR and its crew are presented at this same Geneva show.

The 919 Hybrid makes its debut in the championship the April 20 , 2014at the 6 Hours of Silverstone , where one of the two cars entered finished in third place.

919 Hybrid Evo

In April 2018, to celebrate the end of the career of the 919 Hybrid, Porsche created the 919 Hybrid Evo, a modified version that breaks free from the WEC regulations to be lighter, more powerful and therefore faster. In the subsequent ” 919 Tribute Tour “, Porsche goes on several circuits around the world to beat the lap records.

April 9, 2018, the record for the Spa-Francorchamps circuit fought with Neel Jani driving, with a time of 1 min 41 s 770 or 783 thousandths better than the previous record set by Lewis Hamilton on the Mercedes AMG F1 W07 Hybrid 5 . The average speed is 245.61 km / h during this record lap, and the top speed was measured at 359 km / h 6 .

On June 29, 2018, the 919 Hybrid Evo driven Timo Bernhard holds the record of the lap of the Nordschleife in 5 min 19 s 546 , nearly one minute less than the previous record of 6 min 11 s 13 made by Stefan Bellof on a Porsche 956 C May 28, 1983 7 , 8 . This represents an average speed of 234.693 km / h , and the maximum speed reached is 369.4 km / h in the straight line.

Technical
Version 2014

The car is engaged in the category LMP1 Hybrid in class 6 MJ 9 , N 1 .

The 2014 version uses the following “power unit” (terminology of the technical regulation):

a gasoline engine with four cylinders in V of 2000 cm 3 of displacement, supercharged by a turbocharger and with direct injection. It delivers a maximum output of over 370 kW (500 hp) to the rear axle via a seven-speed gearbox. The V4 architecture, which caused severe vibrations in June 2013, required a new crankshaft in autumn 2013.
two energy recovery systems (named ERSA in the technical regulation); the first (ERS-K) recovers in electrical form the kinetic energy on the front axle while the second (ERS-H) recovers in electrical form the kinetic energy of the exhaust gases. Unlike the 2014 Hybrid Formula 1 single-seaters, this ERS-H is separate from the turbocharger and does not operate the turbocharger with an electric motor.
an energy storage (named ES in the technical regulation) consisting of a lithium-ion storage battery using nanophosphates, from the manufacturer A123;
an electric motor (named MGU in the technical regulation) that restores the energy previously recovered, and is on the front axle, providing a maximum power of more than 185 kW (250 hp).
The same electrical machine performs the functions of ERS-K and MGU; in the first case it functions as a generator, in the second as a motor.

Version 2015

Porsche announces a deeply reworked car even though the appearance is close to that of 2014. The car is now in class 8 MJ and evolves without questioning the principles of 2014 10 :

the exhaust system is evolving; instead of an output in 2014, two outputs are arranged symmetrically to the axis of the car.
the hybrid part (ERSA, ES and MGU) sees its maximum power increased to over 294 kW ( 400 hp ). The battery is liquid cooled.
Porsche uses three different liveries for the 24 Hours of Le Mans ( n o 17 red, n o 18 black n o 19 white) and uses a classic white livery for the rest of the championship.

Porsche 919 Hybrid

Version 2016

In 2016, the engine of the 919 Hybrid remains in an identical configuration (V4 turbo 2 L at 90 °) but a change in the regulation limits the amount of energy available per lap for the LMP1 11 . The 919 Hybrid in the 8 MJ category as the year before, it has 4.31 L of gasoline per lap, a decrease of about 8% involving a decrease in the power of the engine, a little less than 500 hp 12 . The latter is however lighter than before 12 . The power delivered by the electric motor placed on the front axle is now a little more than 400 hp, the total thus amounts to about 900 hp with the two cumulative engines 11 .

Although the chassis and the hybrid architecture are mostly unchanged, optimizations have had to be made to recover and use the electrical energy thus stored, particularly at the level of the SREC (recovery of kinetic energy) and the electrical recovery system of the heat of the exhaust 13 , and the electrical part had to be optimized to draw more power. The lithium-ion battery, designed internally, is a new generation 12 , and the electrical system also operates at the high voltage of 800 V , just like the concept Mission E 13. The accumulated energy can then be delivered to the nose gear when the pilot needs extra power.

The car is still based on a carbon fiber monocoque sandwich construction 12 . The hydraulically controlled seven-speed sequential gearbox is housed in a separate carbon structure 12 . One of the novelties, however, is the aerodynamic level. The 919 Hybrid 2016 version will indeed have three aerodynamic configurations, which can be used wisely depending on the circuit, with for example a configuration with a large downforce for the Silverstone circuit and a lower deportation for Le Mans 12 . The livery is different from previous years, the car is mostly black and white with touches of red.

The performance announced by Porsche is as follows

Version 2017
According to Porsche, the monocoque 2017 is unchanged, but 60 to 70% of the rest of the vehicle is the new 15 . The 919 Hybrid still competes in the 8 MJ class , which enjoys 4.31 L of fuel per lap on the Le Mans 16 circuit .

As the new regulations require, there are only two different aerodynamic kits for the entire season, allowing less flexibility depending on the circuit 15 . The regulation also affects the dimensions of certain parts of the hull, reducing the aerodynamic support and therefore the cornering speed, for safety purposes. Several elements are new, such as the arches of wider and higher wheels and the air intakes redrawn at the rear 16 .

The engine is lighter and Porsche says it is the most efficient engine ever made by the brand. The power is still a little less than 500 hp for the engine, and just over 400 hp for the electric motor, for a total of about 900 hp . Porsche states that 60% of the recovered electrical energy comes from the SREC , and 40% from the exhaust 16 . Exhaust gas drives a turbine running at 120,000 rpm, converting kinetic energy into electricity and recharging the battery. The exhaust system also benefits in 2017 from a lightening. Vehicle weight is the same as the previous year, ie 875 kg , despite improvements 16 .

For the 2017 season, the car has a new livery, mainly white and black, with red and light gray lines running throughout the bodywork.

Evo Version

The 919 Hybrid Evo, created to celebrate the end of career of the 919 Hybrid, includes several improvements made possible by the lack of compliance with the usual regulations. The used car is one of those competing in the 2017 WEC 17 championship , however the changes are numerous.

Its V4 engine, which can use more gas than the 2,464 L per lap usually allowed in Spa, develops 720 hp instead of 500, and electric engines 440 hp instead of 400 17 , bringing the total to nearly 1,200 hp . The weight was reduced from 39 kg to 849 kg empty, including removing air conditioning, wipers, lights or electronic devices. The aerodynamics of the vehicle have also been revised with a wider front diffuser and rear spoiler, side skirts, and a DRSall resulting in a 53% greater support force 17 . The total length is 5.078 m 6 , which is 42.8 cm more than the 2017 version.

On 29 June 2018, the 919 Evo breaks the Nürburgring record driven by Timo Bernhard with a time of 5: 19: 546

Drivers
Season 2014
Porsche 919 Hybrid n o 14: Romain Dumas , Neel Jani , Marc Lieb
Porsche 919 Hybrid n o 20: Hartley , Mark Webber , Timo Bernhard
Season 2015
Two cars are entered for the championship, the n o 19 runs only Spa and Le Mans .

Porsche 919 Hybrid n o 17: Hartley , Mark Webber , Timo Bernhard
Porsche 919 Hybrid n o 18: Romain Dumas , Neel Jani , Marc Lieb
Porsche 919 Hybrid n o 19: Nico Hulkenberg , Earl Bamber , Nick Tandy
2016 Season
As in 2014, only two cars are engaged in 2016, including the same crew as in previous years.