The Tesla Model S is a high-end, 100% electric family sedan built by Tesla Motors . Presented to the public in 2009 at the Frankfurt Motor Show , it has been marketed in the United States since 2012 and in some European countries (including Norway, the Netherlands, Germany and France) since autumn 2013. It is is the second car model marketed by Tesla Motors after the Tesla Roadster .
Benefiting in August 2016 of a NEDC autonomy greater than 600 km , it is currently the electric car of the most powerful series and with the biggest autonomy 1 .
In addition to charging at home and on regular terminals, the Model S has ultra-fast charging stations called Superchargers. These Tesla-specific terminals are deployed by the firm itself in the United States, Europe and Asia. They can recover 80% of the load, more than 300 km , in less than 40 minutes.
In terms of safety, the Model S has obtained EuroNCAP certification with 5 stars, and also 5 stars at NHTSA , its American equivalent. According to the manufacturer, she earned a total score of 5.4, the highest safety rating ever 2 . This is undoubtedly one of the elements of its success, in December 2017 Model S exceeded 200,000 sales.
2012-2013: birth and beginning
Prototype presented at the Frankfurt Motor Show
After unveiling a sports car produced only a few hundred copies, Tesla began research and development of a family sedan but still high-end, Elon Musk thinking that we must start by investing the market by the top . Then comes the prototype called WhiteStar, designed by Franz von Holzhausen ( former ) , former designer for Mazda Motor of America.
The Model S is announced in a press release on June 30, 2008, however few details are communicated. The CEO of Tesla, will specify only in September 2008, during the conference GoingGreen, that the car will be totally electric like all the Tesla vehicles that will follow.
The first prototype is then presented at a press conference on March 26, 2009. While the general public will be able to discover the Model S only in September 2009 at the Frankfurt Motor Show .
After various attempts to build an assembly plant, Tesla announced in May 2010 that the Model S will be produced in the former General Motors assembly plant in Fremont , California, now known as the Tesla Factory.
Prototype of the Tesla Model S
The first ten vehicles are delivered by the Fremont factory on June 22, 2012, the date of the official launch. In August 2012, the production is then about twenty cars a week.
At launch the Model S is available in four versions with three available battery capacities. It is possible to order the Model S 85 which offers a range of 426 km , the Model S 60 which offers a range of 335 km , and the Model S 40 which offers 225 km of autonomy. In addition, Tesla also offers the Model S P85: this version has a more powerful engine.
Aware that the development of the electric car does not only depend on the autonomy but also the cooldown, September 24, 2012, Elon Musk announces the launch of a network of superchargers for the Model S. These ultra charging stations will be accessible free and unlimited for the Model S.
In early 2013, Tesla decided to stop the pre-orders of the Model S 40. Indeed, this version represents only 4% of orders already registered. Those who ordered this version will receive an electronically restrained Model S 60, so they will be able to unlock all its capacities for $ 11,000. With production streamlined and optimized, Tesla, at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show , decided to open new markets in Europe, including Norway, the Netherlands, Germany and France.
It is September 21, 2013 that the first two French Model S P85 (including a Signature) are delivered to Château de la Pioline (13). December 19, 2013 a Tesla Model P85 makes the first Marseille-Paris in 14 h 30 with a single recharge made at CNR Lyon.
2014-2015: extension of the range
In March 2014, a Tesla Model S P85 with crew James Morlaix and Sébastien Chol wins the prestigious Monte-Carlo Rally of Alternative Energies.
On October 9, 2014, Tesla announces the upcoming arrival of AWD model . As of November 2014, two new models are available to order. The Model S 85D replaces the Model S P85; this results in an increase in top speed and autonomy. The Model S P85D, it, is positioned at the top of the range, with an even greater acceleration capacity and a more powerful engine. The Model S 85 is always available.
The Model S 60 does not benefit from full transmission declination. Indeed, as of April 8, 2015, Tesla announces the arrival of the Model S 70D. With improved battery life and acceleration, it complements the Model S 60.
In June 2015, three years after the delivery of the first vehicle, nearly 75,000 Model S vehicles were delivered worldwide. Tesla announces at the same time that the owners of the car have traveled over a billion miles in fully electric mode, this prevented the release of more than half a million tons of CO 2. The Tesla Model S is the first electric vehicle to achieve such a result. Tesla said the courses were 68% in North America, 25% in Europe and 7% in Asia-Pacific.
In July 2015, the Model S 70D gives birth to its propulsion declination, the Model S 70. This one definitively replaces the Model S 60. At the same time, an improvement of the high-end is announced. Although the Model S 85, 85D and P85D are maintained, the Model S 90D and P90D further improve the range of the car that exceeds 500 km . In addition, the Model S P90D, like its predecessor the P85D, can now acquire the mode Ludicrous (“disproportionate”) which offers an acceleration from 0 to 100 km / h below 3 seconds.
In December 2015, the Tesla Model S passed 100,000 sales mark.
In January 2016 , Tesla removes Model S 85, 85D and P85D, to keep only Model S 90D and P90D with a battery of 90 kWh 3 .
In May 2016, Tesla announces the release of a new version with a 75 kWh battery pack . The Model S 75 and 75D improve autonomy but the entry price of the range increases. That’s why less than a month after Tesla reintroduces Model S 60 and 60D to its lineup. This time, the vehicles do not have a battery of 60 kWh but a battery of 75 kWh clamped by the software. This makes it possible to increase the battery output by 75 kWh , to achieve economies of scale, and thus to offer a more attractive call price.
2016-2017: restyling and performances
In April 2016 , Tesla announced a restyling of the Model S with a new grille and new equipment, the first copies are delivered in the summer of 2016 4 .
In August 2016, Tesla announced the Model S P100D with a battery of 100 kWh , the car for the first time exceeds the 600 km range and is capable of achieving 0-100 km / h in 2.7 s . This foreshadows the demise of the Model S P90D range a few months later.
In October 2016, confident of its ability to advance autonomous driving of its cars, Tesla announced that all cars coming out of its factory are now equipped with a battery of new sensors and cameras. This new generation of hardware for the Autopilot feature of the brand is often called AP 2.0. All cars are equipped with the necessary equipment for driving 100% autonomous. The software part started to be rolled out in January 2017 with regular OTA updates , and in March 2017 the AP 2.0 is at the same level of functionality with its predecessor. All features deployed from March 2017 are now part of the option that Tesla calls ” Enhanced Autopilot”.).
In order to save investment in the deployment of the Superchargers network, Tesla announces that all cars ordered after January 15, 2017, will no longer benefit from free lifetime Superchargers. The vehicles will benefit from an annual credit of 400 kWh of free recharge, about 2,000 km , beyond the price of kWh will be 0.20 euro in France.
In January 2017 , the Model S 100D makes its appearance in the range, it has a NEDC autonomy of 632 km . It is the most autonomous electric car in the world. The Model S 90D is maintained in the catalog but it is doomed to disappear following the appearance of this new model.
Since April 16, 2017, Tesla has withdrawn the Model S 60 and 60D, finding that the majority of buyers of these models ended up unlocking the software limitation to a battery capacity of 75 kWh .
In June 2017 Tesla stops as planned the sale of the Model S 90D, this allows the firm to no longer produce the 90 kWh battery pack whose design dates from almost two years ago. This is also a clarification in the range of the Model S before the release of the Model 3, in fact are now marketed two entry-level models, a mid-range model with greater autonomy and a high-end model with the best performance.
At the beginning of July 2017, the entry-level Model Ss see their performances improve. Indeed, Tesla has made technical modifications to the rear engine, so the propulsion and “Dual Motor” versions benefit from an improvement in their acceleration. According to Elon Musk, this new engine has been designed with the goal of having a lifespan of over a million miles (1.6 million kilometers).
In September 2017, Tesla made the choice to abandon the latest Model S propulsion. Thus, to differentiate the Model S from the Model 3, Tesla removes the Model S 75 from its catalog. So only the models 75D, 100D and P100D remain, as for Model X.
From January 2019, the brand decides to stop the order intake for Model S and Model X equipped with 75 kWh 5 batteries , only versions equipped with 100 kWh batteries (100D and P100D) are available.