The Tesla Model X is a high-end, 100% electric family SUV produced by the American manufacturer Tesla . Presented to the public in 2012 at the Geneva Motor Show , it has been marketed in the United States since September 2015 and in some European countries since 2016.
The vehicle is developed on the same platform as the Model S sedan and is manufactured in the same factory in Fremont , California . It can accommodate up to seven people in three rows of seats.
Benefiting since January 2017 of a NEDC autonomy greater than 550 km , it is currently the electric SUV of the most powerful and with the biggest autonomy. In addition to charging at home and on ordinary terminals, the Model X has ultra-fast charging stations called Superchargers. These Tesla-specific terminals are deployed by the firm itself in the United States, Europe and Asia. They make it possible to recover 80% of the load, ie more than 300 km of driving, in less than 40 minutes.
In terms of safety, according to the firm, the Model X would be the safest SUV in terms of frontal and lateral collision. It would be so at the time of its announcement twice as safe as the best SUV in the category.
In December 2017, Model X exceeded 70,000 sales.
Development and marketing
Its prototype was unveiled in February 2012 at the Los Angeles 1 studios and presented in March 2012 at the Geneva International Motor Show . In March 2013, following financial difficulties and in order to focus on the production of its Model S sedan , Tesla postponed by one year the marketing of the Model X, initially planned for the end of 2013 2 .
The presentation of the final version and the first deliveries finally take place in September 2015 3 , after two years of delay. Delivery times for new orders are then greater than eight months, given the 20,000 bookings recorded 4 .
In France, the first delivery takes place in September 2016.
Equipment and habitability
View with open back doors.
One of the special features of the Model X is its butterfly rear doors ( falcon-wing , in English): these articulated doors open vertically thanks to an electric motor and deploy in an arc optimized according to the available space. This allows the manufacturer to access the rear seats more easily than traditional doors, and ask for 30 cm of lateral space to open. Ultrasonic sensors detect possible obstacles to limit the opening.
The windshield , whose upper part is endowed with a solar protection, is very extended and allows a panoramic vision of the sky. The car is also equipped with an air purifier to eliminate pollen, bacteria and viruses 5 .
A “fashion Bio-weapon Defense ” is available, which would, according to the CEO of Tesla, protect a biological attack 6 .
Specifications and autonomy
The two tables below show the technical characteristics of each model in the Tesla Model X range.
The drag coefficient of the vehicle is 0.24, a record for an SUV 7 , which contributes to the range.
All Model X products since its release are equipped to access the superchargers.
For autonomy, three different estimates are given. Indeed, they result from different tests or calculations:
Autonomy NEDC: new European driving cycle , this test of consumption is very optimistic and not representative of a normal use on road. It amounts to driving the car at about 70 km / h in normal conditions.
EPA Independence: The Environmental Protection Agency has implemented a much more realistic test in the United States. It amounts to driving the car at about 100 km / h in the most frequent traffic conditions in the United States.
Autonomy Autopilot: estimation of the autonomy by rolling on expressways at 130 km / h in realistic conditions with a family in the vehicle.
The batteries of the Tesla Model X are composed of thousands of 18650 Lithium-Ion cells supplied by Panasonic since the beginning of its commercialization. The battery is in the floor, which saves interior space and increases the volume of the trunk. To protect its battery, the Model X has a 6mm thick aluminum armor plate .
Cells weigh between 47 and 50 grams and all have a nominal voltage of 3.6 V . The composition of the Model X battery pack differs according to the capacity, moreover the capacity of the basic cells has also evolved as the advances in the matter. Thus, we notice two types of possible evolutions in the capacity of the batteries:
Cell Enhancement: The battery run from 70 to 75 kWh is due to a change in cell chemistry that allows an increase in capacity from 3.2 to about 3.35 Ah . This is due to the introduction of silicone into the anode graph of the cell.
Improvement of the organization of the battery pack: the passage of battery from 90 to 100 kWh is explained among other things by a change in the storage of cells in the pack. The cooling system has been completely redesigned to reduce its needs in place and thus integrate more cells in the pack.
All batteries are guaranteed for eight years, regardless of mileage.